Super-Hydrophobic Fluorine Containing Aerogels
Paul R. Coronado, John F. Poco, Lawrence W. Hrubesh
U.S. Patent 7,211,605 B2
May 1, 2007
An aerogel material with surfaces that contain fluorine atoms exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels efficiently absorb solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water can be separated from the aerogel because they are more volatile than water. Thus, they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water–solid interface. Solvents that are immiscible with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel with fluorine-containing molecules. These molecules can be added directly during the solgel process or indirectly by treating a standard dried aerogel with the vapor of fluorine-containing molecules.
Method for Producing High Surface Area Chromia Materials
Alexander E. Gash, Joe Satcher, Thomas Tillotson, Lawrence Hrubesh, Randall Simpson
U.S. Patent 7,211,607 B2
May 1, 2007
This method includes nanostructured chromium(III) oxide–based materials using solgel processing and a synthetic process for producing such materials. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels with surface areas between 150 and 520 square meters per gram have been produced. The synthetic method uses stable and inexpensive hydrated chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, ethylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl formamide. A metal salt is dissolved in a solvent, and a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, is added to induce timely gel formation. Both critical-point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low-temperature evaporation) drying may be used to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.
Method for Characterizing Mask Defects Using Image Reconstruction from X-Ray Diffraction Patterns
Stefan Peter Hau-Riege
U.S. Patent 7,212,282 B2
May 1, 2007
This invention applies techniques for image reconstruction from x-ray diffraction patterns on the three-dimensional imaging of defects in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) multilayer films. The reconstructed image gives information about the out-of-plane position and the diffraction strength of the defect. The positional information can be used to select the correct defect repair technique. This invention enables the fabrication of defect-free (since repaired) x-ray molybdenum silicon (Mo–Si) multilayer mirrors. Repairing Mo–Si multilayer-film defects on mask blanks is a key for the commercial success of EUVL. During the fabrication process, particles are added to the Mo–Si multilayer film, and this contamination limits mask yields. All suggested repair strategies must account for the out-of-plane position of the defects in the multilayer.
Liquid Heat Capacity Lasers
Brian J. Comaskey, Karl F. Scheibner, Earl R. Ault
U.S. Patent 7,212,558 B2
May 1, 2007
The heat-capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat-capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir, where the bulk of the media and waste heat resides, through a channel configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.
Portable Convertible Blast Effects Shield
John W. Pastrnak, Rocky Hollaway, Carl D. Henning, Steve DeTeresa, Walter Grundler, Lisle B. Hagler, Edwin Kokko, Vernon A. Switzer
U.S. Patent 7,219,588 B2
May 22, 2007
A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast-effects and ballistic shield includes a set of two or more telescoping cylindrical rings to convert between a collapsed configuration for storage and transport and an extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. One upright configuration provides shielding against such effects as blast pressures, shrapnel, and fireballs. A second upright configuration shields against ballistics such as incoming weapons fire and shrapnel. Each ring has a high-strength material construction such as composite fiber and matrix material that can substantially inhibit blast effects and projectiles from passing through the shield. The rings are connected with click locks.
Design and Fabrication of 6.1-Å Family Semiconductor Devices Using Semi-Insulating AlSb Substrate
John W. Sherohman, Arthur W. Coombs, III, Jick Hong Yee,
Kuang Jen J. Wu
U.S. Patent 7,224,041 B1
May 29, 2007
An aluminum antimonide (AlSb) single-crystal substrate is used to lattice-match to overlying semiconductor layers. The AlSb substrate establishes a new design and fabrication approach to construct high-speed, low-power electronic devices with interdevice isolation. Such lattice matching between the substrate and overlying semiconductor layers minimizes the formation of defects such as threaded dislocations, which can decrease the production yield and operational lifetime of 6.1-angstrom (0.61-nanometer) heterostructure devices.
Remotely-Interrogated High Data Rate Free Space Laser Communications Link
Anthony J. Ruggiero
U.S. Patent 7,224,905 B2
May 29, 2007
This system remotely extracts information from a communications station by interrogating it with a low-power beam. Nonlinear phase conjugation of the low-power beam results in a high-power encoded return beam that automatically tracks the input beam and is corrected for atmospheric distortion. Intracavity, nondegenerate four-wave mixing used in the communication station of a broad-area semiconductor laser produces the return beam.
Microwave Hemorrhagic Stroke Detector
Waleed S. Haddad, James E. Trebes
U.S. Patent 7,226,415 B2
June 5, 2007
The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is based on low-power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennae and topographic methods. The detector includes a low-power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broadband antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index-of-refraction matching cap to place over the patient’s head, and an array of broadband microwave receivers with collection antennae. The microwave transmitter and receiver system scans around a patient’s head or up and down the axis of the head. The noninvasive device is designed to rapidly detect and localize pooling blood and clots, common indicators of hemorrhagic stroke, and to measure blood flow. The system can also be used to detect a hemorrhage within a patient’s body.
Automated Macromolecular Crystal Detection System and Method
Allen T. Christian, Brent Segelke, Bernard Rupp, Dominique Toppani
U.S. Patent 7,227,983 B1
June 5, 2007
This automated macromolecular system detects crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency–based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete lines, which are compared to identify crystallike qualities such as parallel lines, similarity in length, and relative proximity. This evaluation allows researchers to determine whether crystals are present in an image.
Speaker Verification System Using Acoustic Data and
Todd J. Gable, Lawrence C. Ng, John F. Holzrichter, Greg C. Burnett
U.S. Patent 7,231,350 B2
June 12, 2007
This system for characterizing speech collects acoustic and nonacoustic data from a speaker as a method for speaker verification. The data are used to generate a first set of “template” parameters. A second set of parameters is generated using acoustic and nonacoustic data from a claimant’s real-time identity claim form. The two sets are then compared to determine whether the claimant is the speaker. Both sets have at least one purely nonacoustic parameter, including a nonacoustic glottal shape parameter derived from averaging multiple glottal cycle waveforms.
Tamper to Delay Motion and Decrease Ionization of a Sample during Short Pulse X-Ray Imaging
Richard A. London, Abraham Szoke, Stefan P. Hau-Riege,
Henry N. Chapman
U.S. Patent 7,236,565 B2
June 26, 2007
In this x-ray imaging system, a tamper is connected to a sample, and short, intense x-ray pulses are directed onto the tamper and the sample. Through this process, an image is detected from the sample. The tamper delays the explosive motion of the sample when it is irradiated with the short, intense x-ray pulses, thereby extending the time to obtain an image of the sample’s structure.
Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings
Michael P. Chrisp, Scott A. Lerner, Paul J. Kuzmenko,
Charles L. Bennett
U.S. Patent 7,239,386 B2
July 3, 2007
This compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating compensates for optical distortions. An entrance slit transmits light to a device for receiving the light, which directs the light to an immersion grating. The immersion grating receives the light and directs it back to the receiving device, which transmits light to the detector array.
Radiation Detection Method and System Using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test
Karl E. Nelson, John D. Valentine, Brock R. Beauchamp
U.S. Patent 7,244,930 B2
July 17, 2007
This system uses the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to enhance the detection of elevated radiation levels. The system determines whether a set of observations is consistent with a specified model within the limits of statistical significance. In particular, SPRT’s processing mechanisms maximize the detection range by estimating the dynamic background radiation and adjusting the models to reflect this amount. The system then analyzes the current sample to determine the sample’s statistical significance and determine when it has returned to the expected background conditions.
Trigger Probe for Determining the Orientation of the Power Distribution of an Electron Beam
John W. Elmer, Todd A. Palmer, Alan T. Teruya
U.S. Patent 7,244,950 B2
July 17, 2007
This probe determines the orientation of electron beams being profiled. The probe is designed to accurately time the location of an electron beam by accepting electrons from a narrowly defined area. The signal produced is then used as a timing or triggering fiducial for a data-acquisition system. Such an arrangement eliminates changes in slit geometry, an additional signal feedthrough in the wall of a welding chamber, and a second timing or triggering channel on a data-acquisition system. As a result, the probe minimizes the adverse effects of current slit triggering methods and thus accurately reconstructs electron- or ion-beam orientations.
Video Surveillance with Speckle Imaging
Carmen J. Carrano, James M. Brase
U.S. Patent 7,245,742 B2
July 17, 2007
When a surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slanted path, turbulence along the path can cause blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short-exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence and thus improve the quality of the recovered images.