Table 4. Mutagenic activity of nonmeat food products (expressed as the number of revertants [mutants] per gram from the Ames/Salmonella test using the TA98 strain of bacteria.) Results for hamburger are given for comparison.

Flour from plant sources heated to 210°C for 60 minutes
Chemical-grade gluten
Food-grade wheat gluten
Cornmeal
Garbanzo flour
Teff flour
Rice flour
Rye flour
Wheat flour for bread

Cooked food samples tested as purchased or cooked as directed
White bread
Pumpernickel
Breadsticks
Crescent rolls
Pizza crust
Graham crackers
Grain beverage

Food samples cooked double the time directed
White bread
Pumpernickel
Breadsticks
Crescent rolls
Pizza crust

Toasted breakfast cereals tested as purchased
Rice-based
Corn-based
Wheat-based (various samples)

Commercial meat subsitutes fried at 210°C for 6 minutes per side
Gluten-based patties (various samples)
Tofu
Falafel
Tempeh burger
Tofu burger
Soy-based patties
Gluten, wheat, teff-based patties (230°C)

Hamburger fried at 210°C for 6 minutes per side
Hamburger fried at 230°C for 6 minutes per side
Hamburger fried at 250°C for 6 minutes per side

Mutagenic activity, revertants per gram
1330
970
180
1890
420
none
none
320


2
6
6
1
3
4
320


5
28
40
4
8


2.2
4.4
0 to 8.8


6 to 9.4
none
2.3
23
none
6.6
30

220
800
1400



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