Patents

Steven T. Mayer, Richard W. Pekala, and James L. Kaschmitter
Composite Carbon Foam Electrode
U.S. Patent 5,626,977
May 6, 1997
Composite carbon foam electrodes that incorporate granularized materials. The composite carbon foam is produced by pyrolysis of mixtures of granularized material, polyhydroxybenzene compounds, and formaldehyde or furfural. The foam has a surface area of 100 to 1200 m2/g and a density of 0.1 to 1.2 g/cm3. The granularized materials include metal and/or carbon fibers, carbon aerogel microspheres, crushed or powderized carbon aerogel, powderized carbon, and metal and metal oxide powders and spheres. The granularized materials are added during the phase when the precursor materials are liquid (prior to gelation), and the precursor materials are spread in very thin films or as thin films on roll-to-roll substrates.

Thomas E. McEwan
Micropower RF Transponder with Superregenerative Receiver and RF Receiver with Sampling Mixer
U.S. Patent 5,630,216
May 13, 1997
A radio-frequency (rf) receiver that includes an external quench oscillator for generating a series of pulses at a predetermined quench frequency and a pulse-forming network connected to the quench oscillator for converting the series of periodic pulses into a series of exponentially damped drive pulses. An oscillator is connected to and driven by these drive pulses, and an antenna is connected to the oscillator for receiving modulated rf signals. A signal extraction network is also connected to the oscillator for blocking the quench frequency signals and for passing the detected rf signals. A micropower amplifier is connected to the signal extraction network for amplifying the detected rf signals. Alternatively, an rf receiver includes a receive antenna, a frequency-selecting network connected to the antenna, and a sampling mixer connected to the network.


Thomas J. Karr
Ballistic Projectile Trajectory Determining System
U.S. Patent 5,631,654
May 20, 1997
A system that determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. The process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. A computer then calculates trajectory characteristics.


Leland B. Evans and Vincent Malba
Pressure Activated Diaphragm Bonder
U.S. Patent 5,632,434
May 27, 1997
An apparatus constructed to bond integrated circuit chips to a substrate to form multichip modules or hybrid packages, using thin-film eutectic solders or bonding materials. The bonder apparatus uses a diaphragm that allows a uniform, high pressure to be applied to the chips, without causing chipping or cracking, while fracturing any solder oxide and providing solder flow. The bonder also uses a template that provides highly accurate chip placement on the substrate and can simultaneously bond chips of different sizes and thicknesses. The bonder also can operate in the presence of any gas (nitrogen, helium, forming gas) or under vacuum, thus enabling a controlled environmental operation.


Alexander R. Mitchell, Philip F. Pagoria, and Robert D. Schmidt
Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution Using 4-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole, Hydroxylamine or O-Alkylhydroxylamine to Prepare 1,3-Diamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene
U.S. Patent 5,633,406
May 27, 1997
A process to inexpensively produce the insensitive benzene ring-based explosives 1, 3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATA), as well as hydroxylamine or its O-alkyl derivatives, are used to synthesize DATB and TATB by vicarious nucleophilic substitution reactions. A trinitroaromatic starting material is reacted with ATA in the presence of a strong base in a solvent to produce DATB or TATB. Starting materials include 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitroaniline, or 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene and may be produced by various reactions. Strong bases include sodium methoxide or potassium tert-butoxide, and a suitable solvent is dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). The reaction temperature is 10 to 30°ree;C. Yields of over 90% can be obtained.


James L. Kaschmitter, Tri D. Tran, John H. Feikert, and Steven T. Mayer
Fabricating Solid Carbon Porous Electrodes from Powders
U.S. Patent 5,636,437
June 10, 1997
The fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double-layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Carbon-containing powder, such as pyrolyzed carbon aerogel microspheres or powder, and a binder precursor, such as a phenolic resin, are formed into a slurry to which a dopant may also be added. A film is formed by depositing the slurry on a substrate or on a porous material. The film is pyrolyzed in an inert, reducing, or oxidizing atmosphere at 600°ree;C to form an electrode. The composition of the electrode determines its use.


David J. Erskine
White Light Velocity Interferometer
U.S. Patent 5,642,194
June 24, 1997
A technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent or "white" illumination to measure the velocity of objects. The principle of white light velocimetry can be applied to any wave phenomenon, i.e., light as well as microwaves and sound. Powerful, compact, or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped-frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. A double interferometer system uses two broadband (achromatic), superimposing interferometers in series with an interposed target. Light rays of one interferometer arm are delayed in time but superimposed in path for a wide range of wavelengths.


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