Increases in greenhouse gas, particulate pollution emissions drive regional drying around the globe

July 6, 2020- 
Despite devastating impacts of drought on human and natural systems, the reasons why long-term regional drying occurs remain poorly understood. Research led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists has identified two signatures or “fingerprints” that explain why arid conditions are spreading worldwide, and why the Western United States has tended toward drought...

Summer students shine in desalination research

June 30, 2020- 
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging class of water desalination technologies that use cyclic charging and discharging of electrodes to reduce or enrich the salinity of incoming water. The desalination characteristics of CDI are strongly influenced by the resistive components of the system. To better understand this process, a team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)...

Catching a wave to study granular material properties

June 29, 2020- 
Stress wave propagation through granular material is important for detecting the magnitude of earthquakes, locating oil and gas reservoirs, designing acoustic insulation and designing materials for compacting powders. A team of researchers including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) physicist Eric Herbold used X-ray measurements and analyses to show that velocity scaling and...

Plasma science report highlights workforce gap, calls for increased national commitment to future experiments

June 24, 2020- 
The National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine released an assessment of the state and future of plasma sciences last month. Commissioned by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Office of Naval Research, the report outlines recommendations for the advancement of plasma science and is anticipated to help set...

DOE honors two early career Lab scientists

June 23, 2020- 
Two scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are recipients of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Research Program award. Federica Coppari and Erin Nuccio are among 76 scientists nationwide selected for the recognition. Under the program, typical awards for DOE national laboratory staff are $500,000 per year for five years. "The...

New way to study how elements mix in giant planets

June 19, 2020- 
There are giants among us — gas and ice giants, to be specific. They orbit the same star, but their environmental conditions and chemical makeup are wildly different from those of Earth. These enormous planets — Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus — can be seen as natural laboratories for the physics of matter at extreme temperatures and pressures. Now, an international team including...

Signaling breast cancer metastasis

June 18, 2020- 
Metastasis accounts for approximately 90 percent of mortality in breast cancer patients. During the last few decades, there has been significant progress in understanding genetic, molecular and signaling mechanisms underpinning cancer cell migration. Biologists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) found another mechanism that affects the maintenance and expansion of malignant...

Modeling neuronal cultures on 'brain-on-a-chip' devices

June 12, 2020- 
For the past several years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists and engineers have made significant progress in development of a three-dimensional “brain-on-a-chip” device capable of recording neural activity of human brain cell cultures grown outside the body. Now, LLNL researchers have a way to computationally model the activity and structures of neuronal communities...

Multi-lab research to improve COVID-19 diagnostics

June 8, 2020- 
In response to the ongoing need for COVID-19 testing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) biologists are part of a collaborative research effort focused on improving the speed and accuracy of diagnostic tests, while enhancing the ability to adapt diagnostic tools as the virus evolves. Currently, the fastest way to identify known pathogens is by using a DNA-based detection...

Checking out iron under pressure

June 5, 2020- 
Iron is the most stable and heaviest chemical element produced by nucleosynthesis in stars, making it the most abundant heavy element in the universe and in the interiors of Earth and other rocky planets. To get a better understanding of the high-pressure behavior of iron, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) physicist and international collaborators discovered the...

Pinpointing the effects of nanoconfinement on water

June 2, 2020- 
Researchers have spent decades studying the properties of water and how they change when there are disruptions to their normal behavior. Research on the topic has a wide range of applications, from biochemical systems to water desalination. A team of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago explored how the...

Simulations explain detonation properties in TATB

May 26, 2020- 
Two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists have discovered a new mechanism for ignition of high explosives that explains the unusual detonation properties of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). The research will allow for systematic improvements to continuum mechanics models used to assess the performance and safety of the material accurately and reliably. Hi...

AI identifies change in microstructure in aging materials

May 26, 2020- 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists have taken a step forward in the design of future materials with improved performance by analyzing its microstructure using AI. The work recently appeared online in the journal Computational Materials Science. Technological progress in materials science applications spanning electronic, biomedical, alternate energy, electrolyte...

Membrane nanopore transport gets picky

May 20, 2020- 
Trying to determine how negatively charged ions squeeze through a carbon nanotube 20,000 times smaller than a human hair is no easy feat. Not only did Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists do that but they found that those ions are unexpectedly picky depending on the anion (a negatively charged ion). The research appears in ACS Nano. Inner pores of carbon nanotubes...

LLNL team helps develop tularemia vaccine

May 18, 2020- 
Two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers who have worked for more than eight years to develop a tularemia vaccine are part of a three-institution team that has been funded to bring their candidate to readiness for use. The two biomedical scientists, Nick Fischer and Amy Rasley, will collaborate with scientists from the University of New Mexico and the Tulane National...

Deactivating coronavirus on N95 respirators for reuse

May 14, 2020- 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are studying ways to safely and rapidly remove viral threats from N95 respirators, without compromising the device’s fit and its ability to filter airborne particles, so they can be reused. As seen during the COVID-19 pandemic, a shortage of personal protective equipment, including surgical masks and respirators, can impede efforts...

Building scientific insight through machine learning

May 13, 2020- 
A team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) materials and computer scientists developed machine learning tools that extract and structure information from the text and figures of nanomaterials articles using state-of-the-art natural language processing, image analysis, computer vision and visualization techniques. They are applying this technique to COVID-19 literature to...

Second skin protects against chem, bio agents

May 6, 2020- 
Recent events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the use of chemical weapons in the Syria conflict have provided a stark reminder of the plethora of chemical and biological threats that soldiers, medical personnel and first responders face during routine and emergency operations. Personnel safety relies on protective equipment which, unfortunately, still leaves much to be desired. For...

Experiment improves predictions of uranium dispersion

May 4, 2020- 
The predictive models that describe the fate and transport of radioactive materials in the atmosphere following a nuclear incident (explosion or reactor accident) assume that uranium-bearing particulates would attain chemical equilibrium during vapor condensation. In a new study, funded by the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D) within the U.S...

Lab researchers, NASA find space station’s surface microbial profile resembles skin of its crew members

April 30, 2020- 
A study conducted by a team of national laboratory and NASA researchers has found that the environment of the International Space Station is affected by the microbial composition of the astronauts themselves. The five-year research effort represents the first study to compare the space station's environmental microbial profile (or microbiome) to an astronaut’s microbiome using metagenomic...