Scientists look to wildfires in hopes of finding missing source of carbonyl sulfide, link to plants’ CO2 uptake

March 23, 2020- 
Carbonyl sulfide is a naturally occurring gas that can help scientists understand how much carbon dioxide plants take out of the atmosphere for photosynthesis. In a new study in Geophysical Research Letters, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists and collaborators looked at how much carbonyl sulfide (OCS) comes from forest fires and other burning biomass, as opposed to...

Planetary defenders validate asteroid deflection code

March 23, 2020- 
Planetary defense researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) continue to validate their ability to accurately simulate how they might deflect an Earth-bound asteroid in a study that will be published in the April issue of the American Geophysical Union journal Earth and Space Science. The study, led by LLNL physicist Tané Remington, also identified sensitivities in the...

Antibiotics can limit body’s ability to uptake analgesics

March 22, 2020- 
LLNL biologists have found manipulating the gut microbiome with antibiotics alters the uptake and effectiveness of acetaminophen. The effectiveness of drug treatments can vary widely between individuals, which can lead to decreased efficacy or increased adverse reactions. Much of the variation can be contributed to genetics, but environmental factors such as nutritional status, disease...

Seeing metal interfaces as they transform

March 19, 2020- 
The regions separating individual crystals in a material are notorious defects, spoiling the simple arrangement of atoms within the crystals. To improve the understanding of how those defects, called grain boundaries, create stronger and more durable materials, a team of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, have for the...

Computers, physics, math shape groundbreaking career

March 11, 2020- 
Growing up in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientist Joe Morris spent much of his time conducting home experiments with chemicals, test tubes and pipettes before moving on to electronics and computer programming. “My parents taught me to be curious, seek answers and be a free thinker,” Morris said of his mother and father, both teachers...

Machine learning accelerates high-performance materials development and deployment

March 3, 2020- 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and its partners rely on timely development and deployment of diverse materials to support a variety of national security missions. However, materials development and deployment can take many years from initial discovery of a new material to deployment at scale. An interdisciplinary team of LLNL researchers from the Physical and Life Sciences...

Flash droughts present challenge for warning system

March 2, 2020- 
Flash droughts are a type of extreme event distinguished by rapid intensification of drought conditions with severe impacts. They unfold on subseasonal to seasonal timescales (weeks to months), presenting a new challenge for improving predictions of when flash droughts occur. In new research published in the March 2 edition of Nature Climate Change, a multi-institutional collaboration...

Lab physicist awarded 2020 dissertation prize

Feb. 28, 2020- 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) physicist Natalie Hell has been awarded the 2020 Dissertation Prize from the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). Hell received the prize for her outstanding experimental doctoral dissertation in laboratory astrophysics. Her thesis, “Benchmarking Transition Energies and Emission Strengths for X-ray...

Observations of melting metal at the picosecond scale

Feb. 25, 2020- 
For the first time, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists and collaborators have observed the shock melting and refreezing of a metal (zirconium) at the picosecond scale (trillionths of a second). Melting and freezing are some of the most common processes but can be difficult to understand since the fundamental mechanisms occur on near-atomic and picosecond timescales....

Glacier retreat study helps predictions of climate future

Feb. 20, 2020- 
Tropical glaciers in Africa and South America began their retreat simultaneously at the end of the last ice age about 20,000 years ago, according to a recent study by a multi-institutional research team that includes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Susan Zimmerman. The finding of synchrony in ice retreat across the global tropics clarifies how the low latitudes transformed...

X-ray flashes shed light on sleeping sickness cure

Feb. 18, 2020- 
Using ultra-bright X-ray flashes, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientist and international collaborators tracked down a potential target for new drugs against sleeping sickness. The scientists decoded the detailed spatial structure of a vital enzyme of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The result provides a possible blueprint for a drug that specifically blocks this...

Nutrients limit carbon uptake to slow climate change

Feb. 10, 2020- 
Nitrogen and phosphorus found in soils are limiting the amount of carbon uptake stored in plants and soils, but maps of where this occurs across the globe are lacking. A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientist and international collaborators have developed a framework for testing nutrient limitations and a benchmark of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) limitation for models...

Lab researchers develop 3D ‘brain-on-a-chip’ device capable of long-term recording of neural activity

Feb. 5, 2020- 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engineers and biologists have developed a “brain-on-a-chip” device capable of recording the neural activity of living brain cell cultures in three dimensions, a significant advancement in the realistic modeling of the human brain outside of the body.  In a paper published by the journal Lab on a Chip, LLNL researchers report on the creation of...

Lawrence Livermore researchers release 3D protein structure predictions for the novel coronavirus

Feb. 3, 2020- 
As global concern continues to rise about a novel coronavirus spreading from China, a team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers has developed a preliminary set of predictive 3D protein structures of the virus to aid research efforts to combat the disease. The team’s predicted 3D models, developed over the past week using a previously peer-reviewed modeling process...

New Lab report outlines ways California could reach goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2045

Jan. 30, 2020- 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists have identified a robust suite of technologies to help California clear the last hurdle and become carbon neutral – and ultimately carbon negative – by 2045. This groundbreaking study, “Getting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions in California,” was conducted as part of LLNL’s expansive energy programs work and the...

3D-printed aerogel electrodes boost energy storage

Jan. 29, 2020- 
A team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists and collaborators from the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) and Sun Yat-Sen University have developed a new class of aerogel electrodes with a simultaneous boost in energy and power density. The research could be a boon for the energy storage industry. “This is the first example in which we were able to boost...

LLNL, Livermore Lab Foundation, ClimateWorks to unveil report on California’s road to carbon neutrality

Jan. 23, 2020- 
WHO: Scientists and leaders from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with the Livermore Lab Foundation and ClimateWorks WHAT: LLNL will host a briefing to unveil the new report, “Getting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions in California,” which identifies a robust suite of technologies to help California clear the last hurdle and become carbon neutral by...

LLNL discovers new method to create nanocarbons

Jan. 17, 2020- 
Nanocarbons have emerged as major nanomaterials due to their many practical applications, including their potential use in energy conversion/storage, bioimaging, drug delivery, sensors, diagnostics and composites. However, their synthesis remains poorly understood. A common high-pressure synthesis route is the detonation of carbon-rich high explosives, which yields nanocarbons as a solid...

Ancient stardust leads to clearer picture of solar system

Jan. 14, 2020- 
Interstellar dust is an important component of our galaxy. Condensed in the outflow of dying stars, it is used to study stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis and the chemical development of the galaxy. Although dust only presents about 1 percent of the mass in the interstellar medium (ISM), it carries a large fraction of the elements heavier than helium, including the elements that form...

Under pressure: Using NIF, researchers compress copper, creating the densest object on Earth

Jan. 9, 2020- 
If copper was found in the core of Saturn it would have the same crystalline structure as the copper pipes found in many homes, according to new research from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Johns Hopkins University. In a paper published today by Physical Review Letters, the research team reveals that copper maintains its crystalline structure at pressures ranging from...